EARLY AFGHAN HOUNDS AND TIMELINE FOR
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BREED WORLDWIDE
(By Steve Tillotson 1996, updated 2011)
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My thanks to Jess Ruffner-Booth for Jess's ongoing support with contributions for these early history pages. I would also like to complement Jess for some exceptional research and reporting. Jess has undertaken some serious research on the subject of Mustapha and Muckmul, hitherto often considered as two separate Afghan Hounds. I think Jess has established very clearly that these two dogs are in fact the "same dog". An outstanding piece of work, Well done Jess.
TIMELINE FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BREED 1921 - 1938
The sequence of distribution of the Afghan Hound over time is as follows - Afghanistan to Scotland, Scotland to England, Scotland to Ireland, Afghanistan to England, Eng/Scot to Holland, England to Ireland, India to England, India to USA, England to USA, England to Switzerland, Eng/Holl to Germany/Belgium.
So by 1938 The Afghan Hound had arrived in 7 European Countries and also arrived in the United States. Belgium and France pretty much imminent also at this point in time
|1921|| Afghanistan to Scotland|
|1921 ||Scotland to England|
|1922 ||Scotland to USA|
|1924|| India to England|
|1925|| Scotland to USA|
|1925|| Scotland to Ireland|
|1925|| Afghanistan to England|
|1926 ||England to USA|
|1927 ||England/Scotland to Netherlands|
|1929|| England to Ireland|
|1929 ||India to USA|
|1930 ||Afghanistan to England|
|1932 ||England to USA|
|1934 ||Afghanistan to USA|
|1935|| India to England|
|1936|| England to Switzerland|
|1938|| England/Netherlands to Germany and Belgium|
Some interesting points arising from this timeline -
1. People often believe that the Afghan Hound was first imported into England, and thence to the rest of the world. Well as we see above, the first meaningful/contributing hounds from Afghanistan were imported into Scotland (Bell Murray/Cove) in 1921. Several of these Bell Murray hounds later came south to English breeders who bred the Bell Murray lines.. The first meaningful/contributing hounds imported direct into England from Afghanistan, occured in 1925 when Major and Mrs Amps (Ghazni) returned to England and established their kennel in the Midlands in England
2. We should also note that the origins of the breed in the UK are not confined to these two types. In addition to Bell Murray/Cove and Ghazni, other imports of the UK foundation era that impacted the breeding/pedigree history included - Shahzada, Afroz, Ardmor Anthony, Lakki Marwat .
3. Similarly in the USA, the foundations are not limited to UK imports - Lawrence Peters pair of Afghanistan imports - Tazi Of Beg Tute and Saki Of Paghman are very significant in the history of the breed in the USA. Other early USA Asian imports included Fatima (Caroline Hall Richmond's Fatima kenels), Umberto (Venita Vardon Oakie's Oakvardon kennels).
(Afghan Hounds were exported to the USA from the UK before any of the famous/foundation lines (eg Prides Hill, Laurence Peters (Tazi Kennel), Caroline Hall Richmonds Fatima's etc) were established. The first Afghan Hounds registered by the AKC were registered by the Dunwalk kennel in 1926. The three registrations were Bell Murray importations from the UK. The O' Valley Farm kennel registered the first homebred litter with the AKC in September 1928. Another early enthusiast was Mr E Abram of "De Flandre" Afghan Hounds . Whiet O'valley/Dunwalk/De Flandre kennels do not contribute to the breeds pedigree history, they earned the distinction of being the earliest pioneers in the breed in the USA).
4. The USA breeds pedigree history effectively starts with the Afghan hounds imported by Q A Shaw Mckean (Prides Hill Kennel, Massachusetts).These breed foundations were - Westmill Omar and Asra Of Ghazni, imported from England by Zeppo Marx in the Spring of 1931. Zeppo transferred them to George Thomas (Barberryhill Kennel) sometime after October, in late 1931. George Thomas then sold them to Q A Shaw Mckean (Prides Hill) in early 1932 .(Asra was already in whelp to Omar at this stage and just a few weeks away from giving birth to a litter of five in April of 1932). After Q A Shaw Mckean had obtained Omar and Asra he imported another Afghan hound from England in 1934 - Ch Badshah of Ainsdart. Badshah's litter brother Tufan of Ainsdart was imported at the same time (George Thomas arranged both these imports) and went to Amelia Whites Kandahar kennel in Santa Fe, New Mexico. On the West Coast in California, Miss Caroline Hall Richmond (Fatima Afghan Hounds) imported two Afghan hounds from India in 1928/29 (we are unsure of the precise date, but both hounds were exhibited in the summer of 1929 on the California show circuit). The most well known hound of Miss Caroline Hall Richmond's kennel was the Indian import "Fatima".. Another Afghan hound accompanied Fatima on the journey from India to California, and that was Jamshepur Souriya, Both Fatima and Souriya were exhibited in California as early as 1929. Fatima would go on to produce offspring for Miss Richmond, first litter whelped in January 1936.,We have no further information about Souriya after her show period in 1929. Laurence Peters bred from his Afghanistan imported breeding pair (Tazi of Beg Tute and Saki of Paghman) in March 1935. Another important USA import was the dog "Umberto", imported from India by Venita Vardon Oakie (Oakvardon kennel) in 1938
The above is a photo of a painting of Fatima done by L Borman and was published in the dog press in 1939 with accompanying narrative from Phyllis Robsom the editor of UK Dog World."The glorious Fatima was born in Afghanistan in 1928 and is her owners friend, pride and joy. (AHT note. Fatima was registered in in the AKC stud book in May 1936. The AKC registration states Fatima was imported from India) She is a red-gold with a black mask and has the muchly desired Eastern outlook. She is a wonderful breeder, though it was not until she was 8 years of age that she had her first litter, comprising 5 males and 3 females and 4 have become champions. Miss Richmond has retained 1 son and 3 daughters which are extra good. The dog is a big smoky brindle, with a black mask. He wa best of winners as a 10 months puppy at a 5 pt. show. He is 29 inches at shoulder, weights 70 lb, yet has not a trace of coarseness, and is the most typical outstanding hound in the States to-day. Another lovely bitch is Queen of Sheba who has 6 puppies by Tufan. There is also Blue Mist of Egypt a blue chinchilla, and Fatima's Daughter Peri a chinchilla, blue and quite famous, as well as Fatima's Daughter Kushdil and Fatima's Daughter Fatima. Queen of Sheba, Blue Mist and Nadir Khan came from Afghanistan so they are a complete outcross to exportations from England". (AHT note. Blue Mist and
Nadir Khan did NOT come from Afghanistan, they were USA bred our of (Tazi Of Beg Tute x Saki Of Paghman). Effectively Blue Mist and Nadir Khan are of Afghanistan lineage, but we think it important to clarify Miss Robson's statement so
that readers do not misunderstand and think that these offspring were imports)..
5.In 1934 Q A Shaw Mckean imported Badshah of Ainsdart, and his litter brother Tufan Of Ainsdart, the latter being transferred to Ameilia White (Kandahar) in New Mexico. Fatima was mated to Tufan and produced several champions from this breeding.
6. So, its probably more accurate to state that Q A Shaw Mckean was the driving force in establishing the breed on the East Coast as well as providing founding stock for other pioneering kennels across the country. For example - Kandahar (New Mexico), their foundation stock included Zara Of Prides Hill and Ch Amanullah of Kandahar both bred by Q A Shaw Mckean at Prides Hill. Miss Caroline Hall Richmond also contributed to establishing the breed on the Western side of the country.
GENERAL DISCUSSION ABOUT EARLY AFGHAN HOUNDS
We tend to talk about "Afghanistan" as the country of origin of our hounds, but we don't know really enough about India and its role and contribution. At the turn of the 20th century, the "gateway" to Afghanistan was via the military presence in India and their excursions into Afghanistan. Imports from Afghanistan invaribly came via India as this was the main shipping route of that era. The photograph we show below of the Zardin family type was taken in INDIA -
So there is some doubt/confusion about the country of origin as opposed to the country of shipping. Further, we know that Major and Mary Amps (Ghazni) maintained kennels in Afghanistan and India, some of the Ghazni's being bred by "Natives". Also, some hounds were exhibited in India before being exported to the UK, for example Zardin and Sirdar were both exhibited in India before being exported to the UK. We hope to establish a research contact in India and see if we can clarify and make a clearer statement at some future point.
(Signfigance Of Some Early/Non Contributing Afghan Hounds)
The Afghan Hound was accepted as an established breed in 1926 when The Kennel Club (UK) granted the breed individual breed classification and awarded the breed its first CC's (Challenge Certificates). Click here to read the KC statement from 1926 Prior to 1926, Afghan Hounds were usually entered in "Variety" or "Foreign" exhibit classes. Whilst there were quite a number of early Afghan Hounds exhibited in England prior to 1926, most of them (one notable exception being - Zardin) had no impact on the breed. However, whilst these early Afghan Hounds do not figure in the pedigrees or bloodlines today, their existance and appearances at shows did a lot to promote interest in the breed. By registering these early Hounds the owners helped encourage The Kennel Club to recognize the validity of a new breed and by virtue of increasing registrations, breeding and show appearances, encouraged the KC into granting the breed individual classification in 1926. Other factors such as the existance of a Breed Standard (AHC, 1925) for Afghan Hounds further encouraged The Kennel Club. So, these early Afghan Hounds, their owners, their exhibitors and other pioneering people in the breed did a lot between the 1880's-1926 to help establish The Afghan Hound for the future generations to come..
(Renaming Of Dogs In The Early Days Is A Problem For Researchers)
In the early days of The Kennel Club it was permissable to totally rename a dog. For example, in my "tail chasing" (pedigree hunting) days I was stumped and could not find Manda Of Chaman (UK). A few years later I eventually located the "Transfer Of Ownership" record. Manda Of Chaman had been renamed "Keschang Of Pushtikuh". just prior to transfer to new owner. The Chaman affix belonged to Molly Sharpe (UK), the Pushtikuh affix belonged to Mrs Semple (UK). To further complicate my hunting down Manda - she was exported to Canada and then re-exported later to the USA. This was as late as the mid 1930's. One also has to be aware that one dog may appear at a show under various names (see Muckmul, Mustapha, Shah below).
(What Should We Call An "Afghan Hound"? What about "Persian Greyhound"?)
In those early days (1880-1910) it was quite common for an (Afghan Hound) to be entered in the "Foreign Dog" or "Variety" classes, often without the breed being stated, or the name of the breed stated varied between (for example) Persian Greyhound, Afghan Greyhound, Afghan Sheepdog, Barukhzy Hound and many other exotic names. You will see evidence of this as you explore the timeline below. You will also see evidence that despite achieving KC recognition and a separate breed classification that Afghan Hounds continued to be entered in Foreign/Variety classes sometimes, and "Persian Greyhounds" were also still being exhibited. (If the term Persian Greyhound means Afghan Hound why were the PG's not entered as Afghan Hounds?
Jess Ruffner-Booth kindly provides us with a plausable explanation on the use of the term "Persian Greyhound" - "Hounds were variously called Barukhzy hounds, Cabul (or Kabul) hounds, Baluchi hounds, Balkh Greyhounds, Afghan greyhounds, and Tazis. They were also referred to as Persian greyhounds, and this is where things get confusing. (The British called pretty much any sighthound-shaped dog a greyhound.) Accounts, usually by military personnel who were actually in the country of origin and saw the dogs in question, frequently refer to Afghans as a type of Persian greyhound. A distinction is made between the 'regular' Persian greyhound, which had silky hair, short on the body and long on the tail and sometimes the ears and backs of the legs, and the 'hairier' form, also found in India, which had hair on the body as well, typically the thighs and shoulders. Sometimes it is stated that both types are found in the same location. Sometimes the hairier dogs are relegated to the mountains. Later accounts shift the name to Afghan greyhound, which is often elaborated on as a variety of Persian greyhound. Once this information gets back to England, where authors were often relying on second or third-hand information, very often from another author that was also relying on information from elsewhere and had never seen an example of the dogs in question, everything gets a bit mixed up. The Persian greyhound type then gets divided into several sub-breeds, including Turkish, Afghan, etc".
Some examples and notes about early Afghan Hounds, (and some Non-Afghan Hounds) that do not contribute to the pedigree/breeding history but may have contributed to promoting the breed and helping it become established
- 1800'S Afghan Hound/Persian Greyhound
- 1875 Tierma (Persian Greyhound)
- 1878,Candahar and Dianne (Persian Deerhound and Persian Greyhound)
- 1881 Kushki/Khelat (Afghan Sheepdogs, NOT Afghan Hound)
- 1881 Motee (Persian Greyhound then Afghan Greyhound)
- 1883 Moroo
- 1888-1894 Mustapha Or Muckmul or Shah? (Persian Greyhound)
- Connie Miller/Dennis McCarthy on Moroo/Shahzada
- 1891 Shahzada (Photo) . . . . (Illustration) . . . . (Color Photo and Notes by the British Museum) . . . .
Photo taken 1896 and Shahzada at Crufts 1895/1896
- 1896 Dilkouch (Afghan Barukhzy Hound)
- 1902 Afghan Bob (Barukhzy Hound)
- 1906 Indian Kennel Club Description Of Zardin
- 1907 Fatima UK (Afghan Barukhzy Hound)
- 1912 Chuku (Afghan Hound)
- 1922 "Tazidah" India export to USA (first recorded USA Afghan?)
- 1924 Ms Bowring and Shahjahen Of Larkbeare
- 1926 Mrs M B Cooper (de Flandre/UK), Mr Abrams (de Flandre/USA)
- 1928 Liang Tsjeoe Afghan Hounds of Mrs S N Liese-Terstall NL
- 1928 Fatima USA
- 1938 Early Canadian breed history
(Early show entries, Crufts, WKC and others)
Below are some pages from early Crufts show catalogues detailing some of the early Afghan Hounds, many of which did contribute to the pedigree/history of the breed
- 1907 Zardin
- 1921 Afghan Hounds None at Crufts
- 1922 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1923 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1924 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts (inc Moti)
- 1925 Afghan Hound Breed Standard Origins
- 1925 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1926 Recognition Of Afghan Hounds, by The Kennel Club
- 1926 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1927 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1927/1928 Afghan Hounds entered at Westminster KC (USA)
- 1928 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1929 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1930 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1931 Afghan Hounds entered at Crufts
- 1935 Afghan Hounds entered at Westminster KC (USA)
and Crufts 1932 with links to vintage newsreel 1932/35
Ghazni UK Afghan Hounds Section
The Hyland Painting
The Origins Section
(Shahzada and Mooroo) (Constance Miller c. 1970/And From Dennis Mccarthy book)
The Afghan Hound Is An Ancient Breed. Evelyn Denyer (KAF) 1925
The Barukhzy (Afghan) And Allied Eastern Hounds. (Extract) by W. D. Drury 1903
Robert Leighton on Mrs Amps Ghazni 1926
UK - KAF (Bell Murray) Afghan Hounds, A Croxton Smith,
Country Life 1926 (extract)
Extract on The Afghan Hound from "The Practical Dog Book by Edward C Ash m.r.a.c (Dip. Hons.) 1931
The Barukhzy (Afghan) And Allied Eastern Hounds (Extract) from "British Dogs,
Their Points, Selection, And Show Preparation", by W. D. Drury 1903
Afghan Hounds In India, Steve Tillotson, 2012
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